Abstract:Background & Aim: Toxoplasma (T.) gondii can cause zoonotic and an asymptomatic infection. It can survive longer than a year in patients, Infection can be transmitted with blood and blood products as well as with classical transmission routes. The number of studies in endemic areas related to asymptomatic T. gondii infection in blood donors in Turkey are limited. Aim of the study is to determine the molecular epidemiology T. gondii in blood donors in Mersin, Turkey.\n\nMaterial and Method: Blood samples were collected from 413 donors in June 2016 to June 2017 at Mersin University Health Research and Application Center. The donors were asked to fill a questionnaire for determining the risk of exposure to T. gondii infection. Genomic DNA extraction from blood samples was performed with High pure PCR Template Preparation Kit. The presence of T. gondii parasite was evaluated by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Surface antigen 2 (SAG2) gene was amplified.\n\nResults: The results of the study were determined by descriptive statistical analysis method. Upon blood donors questionnaire analysis results, the rate of working in the farm was found 5.8%. However, this rate was 39.7% for the people working in the office. The number of cat feeders in the study group was 5.6%. The presence of T. gondii parasite was investigated by nested-PCR method. None of the samples were found PCR positive in the study.\n\nConclusion: Molecular epidemiology of this parasite in healthy donors has not been searched in our region, yet. The data obtained in this research is the first screening data. It is necessary to conduct multi-center searches of this infection where more donors will be involved.\nKey Words: Blood donor, endemic, T. gondii, nested-PCR, immunocompromised patients.
Abstract:Background. The improvement in health quality of the population is a continuing challenge for societies and governments. In spite of the many advances in medical practice and health sciences in past years, the vast majority of the population still barely meets the minimum standards for health care and human development. \nResearch Design and Methodology. This study attempted to determine and evaluate primary health care center’s’ in prevention of Communicable disease and control of environmental Health in Taif, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia The research subjects of the study were the five administrators, five medical directors, 20 doctors, 29 nurses and 154 clients of the selected primary health care centers.\n Results. Frequency of 166 or 77.93 percent, measles with 147 or 69.01 percent, tuberculosis (TB) with 134 or 62.91 percent, chickenpox, diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus with 128 or 60.09 percent, mumps with a frequency of 126 or 59.15 percent, bacillary dysentery with 105 or 49.29 percent, pneumonia with 103 or 48.36%, typhoid fever with 96 or 45.07 percent, and malaria with 95 or 44.60 percent. Occupying the 11th to 15th spot are cholera and dengue fever with a frequency count of 93 or 43.66 percent, schistosomiasis with 88 or 41.31 percent, leprosy with 78 or 36.61 percent and filariasis with a frequency of 72 or 33.80 percent. environmental health services provides by the Primary Health Care Centers in Taif, Saudi Arabia. On top of the list is food safety with a frequency count of 137 or 64.31%. It is followed by water sanitation with 123 or 57.74 percent, solid waste management with 122 or 57.28 percent, toxic and hazardous waste control with 116 or 54.56 percent, radiological protection with 111 or 52.11 percent, institutional sanitation with 109 or 51.17 percent, noise and air pollution control with a frequency count of 93 or 43.66 percent, proper excreta and sewage disposal system with 88 or 41.31 percent, and vermin and vector control with 83 or 38.97 percent.\nConclusions. In the light of the findings, the following conclusions were divulged .The Primary Health Care Centers in Taif, Saudi Arabia offers varied services to promote and maintain health; prevent illness and complications; and alleviate sufferings.
Abstract:The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a serious and emerging issue in Saudi Arabia since it was first identified in September 2012. We now stand at the precipice of health care transformation where disease prevention and health promotion in people, animals, and our environment have become a critical strategic need. Health education for the community especially highly educated group about Infection prevention and control is a key element in prevention and control of disease outbreak. Objectives: Assess the preparedness for self-care against (MERS-CoV) among Taif University students and the effectiveness of the educational booklet on triggering a vigilance for their Self-Care. Methods: A quasi-experimental research design (the pre-post intervention) was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, practice and attitude for 930 university students from medical and non-medical education fields 3 months before and after distribution of educational booklet for self-care against MERS-CoV infections during the year 2017. Results: There was a satisfactory significance change in the students\' level of knowledge, preventive practice measures and attitude that they become well prepared and have the vigilance for self-care against MERS-CoV infections. Conclusion & Recommendations: Guidance booklet was successful in achieving significant improvement in students’ self-care vigilance against MERS-CoV which was reflected in improvement of their knowledge and changing their attitude. Continued education and further research study should be open to all community especially nurses according to their needs to increase their awareness about disease prevention. The psychological and social factors should be considered as important factors for full recovery.
Abstract:dult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, childhood traumas
Abstract:Parents of children with autism may suffer high levels of stress, resulting in disruption in lifestyle and relationship, deprivation of human need, and failure to act in ways to eliminate the cause of the distress. Moreover, family stress can contribute to unfavorable prognosis. This study aimed to assess stressors and needs of parents having children with autism at Al-Taif city. Design: A descriptive study design was used. Setting: The study was conducted at the Special Needs Health Care Center and Al-Rawda18 nursery school in Al-Taif city. A convenient sample was used in the study. It included 101 parents and their autistic children. Three tools were used to collect the data: the Child\'s Medical and Developmental Data Sheet, the Parenting Stress Index, and resources/needs inventory. The study findings of the present study revealed that (48%) of children had initial diagnosis of autism, (48%) of their mothers had university education. (85.1%) of children were born full term and parents accepted pregnancy (82.2%) More than half were born normally (66.3%). A statistically significant relationship was found between parents\' stressors and their needs. It can be concluded that almost all parents of autistic children have high levels of stressors. Most children with autism have a family history of neurological and mental problem. The study recommended that Nurses should exert more effort to support parents of children with autism through counseling clinics. Future researches are proposed to investigate the effectiveness of nursing interventions aimed at enhancing the use of coping strategies among parents with autistic children.
Abstract:The aim of the present study was to identify the mastitis-causing yeasts from quarters with subclinical mastitis and to evaluate the effect of the teat-end lesions on the outcome of mycotic mastitis. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9 dairy herds located in Tiaret province, western Algeria. The clinical status of 752 quarters was determined by clinical examination and the California Mastitis Test (CMT). The teat-end condition was assessed visually and scored on a scale of 1 to 5, and the mastitis-causing yeasts were identified using API 20C AUX system. Mould identification at the genera level was based on the macroscopic and microscopic criteria. Out of 752 examined quarters, 261 (34.7%) quarters tested positive for CMT. Fungal agents were found in 5.75% of milk samples (15/261), with the predominance of Candida spp. The most frequent species was Candida tropicalis followed by C.albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Cryptococcus albidus, Geotrichum capitatum, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Penicellium spp. The analysis of the data indicated no association between teat-end lesions and the prevalence of mycotic mastitis (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.047). The outcome of the present study pointed out the implementation of fungi in mastitis and consequently their influence on the milk’s microbiological quality.
Abstract:improve nursing practice, to provide more professional care, to increase their autonomy, nurses need to engage and utilize more and more evidence based practice. Although there is a consensus among healthcare providers, that the application of evidence-based practice is beneficial for both patients and health institutions, still now there are procrastinating and obstacles in the application of these practices in some health care facilities. Objectives: this study aims to assess the main challenges faces nurses to implement evidence-based nursing practices in three tertiary hospitals using a descriptive cross –section study design. Setting: This study was conducted at three governmental tertiary hospitals in Taif city –Saudi Arabia. Sampling: for this study the sample was taken from nurses working in these three hospitals by convenience sampling method. The results of this study showed that (55%) of nurses were not practicing evidence-based nursing practice (EBNP)N before. Moreover the findings of study revealed that subjects were had poor awareness about steps and resources of evidence based practice (EBP). Furthermore the most common barrier faced study nurses were insufficient time to find research reports (58%), lack of authority to change practice (66%), lack of supportive from colleagues (61.5%) and insufficient support from doctors.
Abstract:Identifying of anomalous observations has received a great deal of attention in the statistical literature in the context of ordinary least squares estimator (OLSE). However, the explanatory variables can be inter correlated with each other and alternatives to OLSE come out to address anomalous observations and multicollinearity, simultaneously. In this research paper, I use global influence technique to identify anomalous observations in modified Liu estimator (MLE) proposed by Li and Yang (2012). MLE is superior, in the mean square error matrix sense, to the OLSE, Liu estimator (LE), ridge regression estimator (RRE) and modified ridge regression estimator MRRE). When MLE is used to mitigate the effects of multicollinearity, the anomalous observations can be drastically modified. This paper is aimed to analyze global influence techniques to identify anomalous observations in MLE. To illustrate the methodologies derived in this paper two multicollinearity real data sets were used to identify anomalous observations using global influence techniques. Approximate case deletion influence measures are also proposed for the MLE
Abstract:Our study aims to show whether the administration of Fibroblast Growth Factor-2 (FGF2) and ozone against neuron-damaging hypoxia-ischemia has any neuroprotective effects in rats exposed to experimental cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. 6 groups were created with each group containing 10 rat that 7d old male Wistar rats. The first group, which was the Sham group, was the one in which a neck dissection was performed while ischemia was not caused. 2nd group, carotid arteries were linked, hypoxia was induced in order to cause hypoxia-ischemia (HI), which is done all groups except sham. The other groups were the ones with 10 µl/ml and 20 µl/ml FGF2 administered. The last groups were the ones with 25 ?g/ml and 50 ?g/ml ozone administered, routine tissue follow-up procedures were carried out and stained with hematoxylin and eosin stain, and inflammation, eosinophilic cytoplasm, edema in the cerebral cortex, vascular congestion and necrobiotic-necrotic changes were scored and evaluated. In light microscope revealed moderate-to-severe eosinophilic cytoplasm and necrobiotic changes in the HI group when compared to the Sham group and the 20 µl/ml FGF2 group among others. Significant differences in the criteria of inflammation, vascular congestion and edema in the cerebral cortex was detected between the same groups. Kruskal-Wallis test was used for intergroup comparison resulted in a statistically significant difference between all of the study groups (p< 0.05). In our study, morphological recovery was observed depending on the different doses of FGF2 and ozone used to protect the neurons, were fund to be statistically significant.
Abstract:The aim of this study was to investigate effect of the compressive follower preload on modal characteristics of the human whole lumbar spine. A computed tomography (CT)-based 3D ligamentous FE model of the human T12–pelvis spinal segment was developed and validated to predict lumbar modal responses in terms of resonant frequency and mode shape in vertical direction under different values of compressive follower preload. The results showed that under the 0 N, 400 N, 600 N and 800 N preloads, the vertical resonant frequencies for the T12–pelvis model were 6.49 Hz, 7.27 Hz, 7.55 Hz and 7.76 Hz respectively, which presented an increase with increasing preload magnitude. The mode shapes at these resonant frequencies illustrated that the lumbar spine not only performed vertical motion but anterior-posterior (A-P) motion and rotation under vertical vibration. Moreover, increasing the preload decreased vertical displacement of the vertebrae and also altered their A-P displacement and rotational angle in the sagittal plane for the vertical mode shape.