Abstract:In previous studies, an herb-resistant plasmid was extracted by alkaline lysis from Escherichia coli (E. coli) CP9 from urine of a patient with urinary tract infection (UTI). Results of trans-conjugation test showed that the herb-resistant gene was in the plasmid. Aim to determine the properties of the herbal resistance plasmid in E. coli CP9. Expression and immunological activity of target proteins were tested by Western blot, while expression of tra gene in the herb-resistant plasmid was detected by PCR. According to Western blot, bright fluorescence bands (33kDa and 44kDa specific protein band) were observed in the E. coli CP9, but not in the control group. The TrfA-33 protein (33kDa) and the TrfA-44 protein (44kDa) encoded by trf-A gene were expressed successfully in E. coli CP9. The results of PCR showed that there were 8 clear bands involving the herbal resistance plasmid DNA, while no amplification band was found in the control group. The amplified products were orf1 (406bp), orf2 (1035bp), orf4 (433bp), orf5 (359bp), orf6 (322bp), orf7 (326bp), orf8 (932bp) and orf10 (690bp). Tra gene was expressed in the herb-resistant plasmid. The herb-resistant plasmid contains an essential nucleotide sequences for DNA replication, namely, a replication origin. Moreover tra gene had a control over bacterial conjugation and transformation. All evidences support a sound conclusion that the herb-resistant plasmid belongs to conjugative plasmids.
Abstract:Marketing plays a major role in agricultural production and this is because agriculture has the potential to provide the majority of smallholder farmers with employment and income. However, for smallholder farmers to enjoy the benefits provided by agriculture they require a reliable market for their harvests. The paper therefore examined cowpea value chain mapping and marketing efficiency among cowpea farmers in Ga-Molepo of Capricorn district and Bela-Bela of Waterberg district. Primary data was collected from 80 smallholder cowpea farmers using structured questionnaire. Value chain map, and binary logistic regression model and descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. The study findings showed that 66% of the smallholder cowpea farmers were market efficient, and 34% were market inefficient. It was also revealed that there were more women involved in cowpea production than their male counterparts. Results from binary logistic regression model employed indicated that age, household size, years in schooling, years in farming cowpea, income generated from selling cowpea, quantity of cowpea sold and occupation of the farmers had positive significant influence on marketing efficiency of cowpea farmers in the study areas. This paper therefore recommends increased investment in education and training opportunities for smallholder farmers for better profit making and stakeholders in agriculture value chain in the study area should come together for proper coordination of activities to further enhance efficiency.
Abstract:Huge post-harvest losses are experienced in cassava production in Nigeria due to factors such as poor infrastructure, low levels of technology and low investment in food production systems, pest infestation, climate, growing conditions, handling and retail level factors as well as mechanical damage to cassava roots, among others. This paper sought to analyze the extent of post-harvest losses experienced by farmers, the management strategies employed by them as well as the effect of these losses on the profitability of cassava processors in Iseyin Local Government Area of Nigeria. Using a systematic sampling method, a total of 160 respondents were selected for the study. The questionnaire elicited information on socio-economic characteristics of farmers, extent and causes of losses, structures used for storage, among others. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics, frequency tables and Ordinary Least Squares Regression. The results obtained revealed that post-harvest losses occurred mainly as a result of inadequate access to storage facilities and inadequate access to credit facilities. It was recommended that cassava processing and storage facilities could be made available to cassava processors through public-private collaborations in the agricultural sector while credit facilities should be provided by expanding current financing programmes in the agricultural sector.
Abstract:Aim: To determine the effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) and cervical rehabilitation on chronic tinnitus treatment. Materials and methods: This study was conducted on forty patients suffering from chronic tinnitus with an age ranged from 30 to 60 years. They were randomly assigned into two groups. Group (A) received only medical treatment for 12 weeks (n=20), while group (B) received the same medical treatment in addition to LLLT and cervical rehabilitation for 12 weeks (n=20). Tinnitus severity was assessed through tinnitus visual analog scaling (VAS) and tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) before and after treatment for all patients in both groups. Results: Comparing both groups post-treatment showed that there was a statistically significant reduction in tinnitus VAS and THI (p<0.05) in favor of group (B). In group (A), the rates of reduction in tinnitus VAS and THI were 20.6% and 10.02% respectively, while they were 50.7% and 20.6% respectively in group (B). Conclusions: Low level laser therapy plus cervical rehabilitation are beneficial treatment for chronic tinnitus. Key Words: Chronic tinnitus, Low level laser therapy, Cervical rehabilitation
Abstract:Population growth is one of the major issues facing the Arab Republic of Egypt. To illustrate, this issue is represented in the increase of population growth rates (due to high fertility rates) at higher rates than the economic growth rates. At the same time, slums in Egypt have spread as they represent 37.5% of the total of urban area in Egypt. In such areas, the low socio–economic characteristics of its population are reflected and its effects on that issue are evident. Consequently, this study aims to recognize the extent of prevalence of these slums and its characteristics in Greater Cairo in particular. Moreover, it attempts to study the reproductive behavior of slums dwellers in Greater Cairo because they represent 59% of the total slum population throughout the Republic, and to study the relation between slums and its dweller’ s reproductive levels and trends. \nMulti–leveled Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used through the use of M–PLUS 8.0 program to test the proposed model to interpret the relation between fertility determinants, as mediator variables, on the current and future fertility. \nThe study offers several recommendations to achieve its objectives, including the expansion of educational services, encouraging females to enroll in education; especially the young–aged groups, and conducting a national survey specific to slums in the Arab Republic of Egypt of all of its categories to measure knowledge and attitudes towards reproductive health and reproduction in order to spot the deficiencies so that a comprehensive strategy for slum.
Abstract:This paper study an exact formula for ruin probability for generalized risk processes under interest force with assumption that claims and premiums are assumed to be possitive integer – valued random variables and interests are assumed to be non – negative random variables (claims, premiums and interests are assumed to be independent). Exact formula for ruin (non ruin) probabilities are derived by using technique of classical probability. A extendly result for claims are homogeneous Markov chain, premiums are homogeneous Markov chain and interests are homogeneous Markov chain.
Abstract:This paper presents theoretical and experimental analysis of a night sky radiation cooling system. The system used for this study consists of, radiator panel and an insulated water tank. The system is constructed for verifying the validity of a mathematical model proposed to describe the radiator panel transient thermal behavior. The theoretical analysis is conducted by solving the unsteady energy balance equation for the radiator panel. This equation is formulated into finite difference form. A computer program is constructed to carry out the numerical solution. This program is used to investigate the effect of water flow rate on the thermal performance of the system. The experiments are conducted at atmospheric conditions of Abha city that is situated 2270 m above sea level with latitude of 180 N and longitude of 420 E in Saudi Arabia with the average spring conditions (16.5-26.5 oC of ambient temperature and 55-65 % of relative humidity). The constructed system had ability to create 12-17 oC reduction in the water temperature for various water flow rate. It is noticed that the theoretical and experimental results in a good agreement and hence, the simulation program is used for the design of such a similar large scale for building cooling.
Abstract:The demographics in Egypt, mostly young people, there is no tool or methodology to measure the development and youth empowerment in Egyptian society as a multidimensional concept empowerment methodology needs to measures the amount of those dimensions and arranged according to logic/or systematic theme. The present study aims to shed light on the current situation of the development and youth empowerment in Egypt by comparing values guide the development and youth empowerment nationally and internationally. \nThe Commonwealth group methodology was adopted and applied to youth and youth survey data 2014 and factor analysis method was used to guide the development and youth empowerment. There are clear differences in the values of both the guide value of each dimension separately, or at the level of the total value of the directory, and the value factor analysis results showed total directory about (0.46) nationwide, and those were the low value of the blank calculated according to the methodology of the Commonwealth Which was (0.611), varied dimension values five directory except the health dimension which is no different in value, whether applied to data or according to the methodology and weights of the Commonwealth. Recommended search using actual data to clarify the values and dimensions directory, which in turn calls need to be young and youth survey scan DOI is implemented at least in a maximum of three years.
Abstract:In this artic1e, the prob1em of mu1tiple step–stress acce1erated 1ife tests when the 1ifetime follows\nthe genera1ized exponentia1 distribution is considered. Based on type–I censoring scheme, the maximum\nlikelihood and Bayes methods of estimation were used for estimating the distribution parameters and\nacce1eration factor. A Monte Carlo simu1ation study was carried out to examine the performance of\nobtained estimates
Abstract:Staphylococcal species is an important nosocomial pathogen. The increasing rate of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has led to an enlarged use of antimicrobial drug for instance macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin B (MLSB) as an alternative approach to treat such infections. The resistance to MLSB can be facilitated by erm genes coding for enzymes that entail inducible (iMLSB) or constitutive (cMLSB) resistance to MLSB antibiotics. Objectives: The aim was to determine the occurrence of inducible clindamycin resistance (iMLSB) among staphylococcal isolates and to detect erm genes in these isolates. Methods: Fifty staphylococcal isolates were collected from patients attending Theodor Bilharz Research Institute. The mecA- mediated oxacillin resistance was identified by disc diffusion. The iMLSB resistance phenotype among staphylococcal isolates was detected by D-test. The ermA, ermB and ermC genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results: S. aureus was identified in 70%, of which 62.9% were MRSA and 37.1% were methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) was recognized in 30%, of which 86.7% was methicillin resistant CoNS (MR-CoNS) and 13.3% were methicillin susceptible CoNS (MS-CoNS). MRSA, MSSA, MRCoNS and MSCoNS isolates were resistant to erythromycin in 63.6%, 30.8%, 92.3% and 100% respectively. D-test results revealed that iMLSB cMLSB and MSB resistance phenotypes were detected in 28%, 24% and 12% respectively. The iMLSB was determined in 20%, 38.5% and 27.3% of CoNS, MSSA and MRSA isolates respectively. The cMLSB were detected only in MR-CoNS (53.8%) and MRSA (22.7%) isolates. MSB were observed in MRSA, MR-CoNS and MSCoNS in 4.5%, 30.8% and 50% correspondingly. The ermC gene was the most prevalent gene (88%), followed by ermB gene (74%) and were found simultaneously in 68% of the isolates while ermA gene was absent in all isolates. The ermC was the prevalent gene detected among MSSA, MRSA and MS-CoNS isolates in 100%, 90.9% and 100% respectively, while ermB was the predominant gene in MR-CoNS (76.9%). The ermC was the prevalent gene among the iMLSB, cMLSB and MS resistance phenotypes in 85.7%, 100% and 83.3% respectively while ermB was determined in iMLSB, cMLSB and MSB in 64.3%, 75% and 50% respectively. Conclusion: The iMLSB was the most frequent resistance phenotype and ermC was the predominant gene among the staphylococcal isolates. Routine testing for iMLSB resistant strains by D test is critical to recognize the strains which endure vulnerable to clindamycin regardless of macrolide resistance, so as to avoid failure of the treatment.