Abstract:Aim: To determine the effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) and cervical rehabilitation on chronic tinnitus treatment. Materials and methods: This study was conducted on forty patients suffering from chronic tinnitus with an age ranged from 30 to 60 years. They were randomly assigned into two groups. Group (A) received only medical treatment for 12 weeks (n=20), while group (B) received the same medical treatment in addition to LLLT and cervical rehabilitation for 12 weeks (n=20). Tinnitus severity was assessed through tinnitus visual analog scaling (VAS) and tinnitus handicap inventory (THI) before and after treatment for all patients in both groups. Results: Comparing both groups post-treatment showed that there was a statistically significant reduction in tinnitus VAS and THI (p<0.05) in favor of group (B). In group (A), the rates of reduction in tinnitus VAS and THI were 20.6% and 10.02% respectively, while they were 50.7% and 20.6% respectively in group (B). Conclusions: Low level laser therapy plus cervical rehabilitation are beneficial treatment for chronic tinnitus. Key Words: Chronic tinnitus, Low level laser therapy, Cervical rehabilitation
Abstract:Population growth is one of the major issues facing the Arab Republic of Egypt. To illustrate, this issue is represented in the increase of population growth rates (due to high fertility rates) at higher rates than the economic growth rates. At the same time, slums in Egypt have spread as they represent 37.5% of the total of urban area in Egypt. In such areas, the low socio–economic characteristics of its population are reflected and its effects on that issue are evident. Consequently, this study aims to recognize the extent of prevalence of these slums and its characteristics in Greater Cairo in particular. Moreover, it attempts to study the reproductive behavior of slums dwellers in Greater Cairo because they represent 59% of the total slum population throughout the Republic, and to study the relation between slums and its dweller’ s reproductive levels and trends. \nMulti–leveled Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used through the use of M–PLUS 8.0 program to test the proposed model to interpret the relation between fertility determinants, as mediator variables, on the current and future fertility. \nThe study offers several recommendations to achieve its objectives, including the expansion of educational services, encouraging females to enroll in education; especially the young–aged groups, and conducting a national survey specific to slums in the Arab Republic of Egypt of all of its categories to measure knowledge and attitudes towards reproductive health and reproduction in order to spot the deficiencies so that a comprehensive strategy for slum.
Abstract:This paper study an exact formula for ruin probability for generalized risk processes under interest force with assumption that claims and premiums are assumed to be possitive integer – valued random variables and interests are assumed to be non – negative random variables (claims, premiums and interests are assumed to be independent). Exact formula for ruin (non ruin) probabilities are derived by using technique of classical probability. A extendly result for claims are homogeneous Markov chain, premiums are homogeneous Markov chain and interests are homogeneous Markov chain.
Abstract:This paper presents theoretical and experimental analysis of a night sky radiation cooling system. The system used for this study consists of, radiator panel and an insulated water tank. The system is constructed for verifying the validity of a mathematical model proposed to describe the radiator panel transient thermal behavior. The theoretical analysis is conducted by solving the unsteady energy balance equation for the radiator panel. This equation is formulated into finite difference form. A computer program is constructed to carry out the numerical solution. This program is used to investigate the effect of water flow rate on the thermal performance of the system. The experiments are conducted at atmospheric conditions of Abha city that is situated 2270 m above sea level with latitude of 180 N and longitude of 420 E in Saudi Arabia with the average spring conditions (16.5-26.5 oC of ambient temperature and 55-65 % of relative humidity). The constructed system had ability to create 12-17 oC reduction in the water temperature for various water flow rate. It is noticed that the theoretical and experimental results in a good agreement and hence, the simulation program is used for the design of such a similar large scale for building cooling.
Abstract:The demographics in Egypt, mostly young people, there is no tool or methodology to measure the development and youth empowerment in Egyptian society as a multidimensional concept empowerment methodology needs to measures the amount of those dimensions and arranged according to logic/or systematic theme. The present study aims to shed light on the current situation of the development and youth empowerment in Egypt by comparing values guide the development and youth empowerment nationally and internationally. \nThe Commonwealth group methodology was adopted and applied to youth and youth survey data 2014 and factor analysis method was used to guide the development and youth empowerment. There are clear differences in the values of both the guide value of each dimension separately, or at the level of the total value of the directory, and the value factor analysis results showed total directory about (0.46) nationwide, and those were the low value of the blank calculated according to the methodology of the Commonwealth Which was (0.611), varied dimension values five directory except the health dimension which is no different in value, whether applied to data or according to the methodology and weights of the Commonwealth. Recommended search using actual data to clarify the values and dimensions directory, which in turn calls need to be young and youth survey scan DOI is implemented at least in a maximum of three years.
Abstract:In this artic1e, the prob1em of mu1tiple step–stress acce1erated 1ife tests when the 1ifetime follows\nthe genera1ized exponentia1 distribution is considered. Based on type–I censoring scheme, the maximum\nlikelihood and Bayes methods of estimation were used for estimating the distribution parameters and\nacce1eration factor. A Monte Carlo simu1ation study was carried out to examine the performance of\nobtained estimates
Abstract:Staphylococcal species is an important nosocomial pathogen. The increasing rate of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has led to an enlarged use of antimicrobial drug for instance macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin B (MLSB) as an alternative approach to treat such infections. The resistance to MLSB can be facilitated by erm genes coding for enzymes that entail inducible (iMLSB) or constitutive (cMLSB) resistance to MLSB antibiotics. Objectives: The aim was to determine the occurrence of inducible clindamycin resistance (iMLSB) among staphylococcal isolates and to detect erm genes in these isolates. Methods: Fifty staphylococcal isolates were collected from patients attending Theodor Bilharz Research Institute. The mecA- mediated oxacillin resistance was identified by disc diffusion. The iMLSB resistance phenotype among staphylococcal isolates was detected by D-test. The ermA, ermB and ermC genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results: S. aureus was identified in 70%, of which 62.9% were MRSA and 37.1% were methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) was recognized in 30%, of which 86.7% was methicillin resistant CoNS (MR-CoNS) and 13.3% were methicillin susceptible CoNS (MS-CoNS). MRSA, MSSA, MRCoNS and MSCoNS isolates were resistant to erythromycin in 63.6%, 30.8%, 92.3% and 100% respectively. D-test results revealed that iMLSB cMLSB and MSB resistance phenotypes were detected in 28%, 24% and 12% respectively. The iMLSB was determined in 20%, 38.5% and 27.3% of CoNS, MSSA and MRSA isolates respectively. The cMLSB were detected only in MR-CoNS (53.8%) and MRSA (22.7%) isolates. MSB were observed in MRSA, MR-CoNS and MSCoNS in 4.5%, 30.8% and 50% correspondingly. The ermC gene was the most prevalent gene (88%), followed by ermB gene (74%) and were found simultaneously in 68% of the isolates while ermA gene was absent in all isolates. The ermC was the prevalent gene detected among MSSA, MRSA and MS-CoNS isolates in 100%, 90.9% and 100% respectively, while ermB was the predominant gene in MR-CoNS (76.9%). The ermC was the prevalent gene among the iMLSB, cMLSB and MS resistance phenotypes in 85.7%, 100% and 83.3% respectively while ermB was determined in iMLSB, cMLSB and MSB in 64.3%, 75% and 50% respectively. Conclusion: The iMLSB was the most frequent resistance phenotype and ermC was the predominant gene among the staphylococcal isolates. Routine testing for iMLSB resistant strains by D test is critical to recognize the strains which endure vulnerable to clindamycin regardless of macrolide resistance, so as to avoid failure of the treatment.
Abstract:This correlational study aimed to determine the influence of faculty membersï¿½ educational attainment on graduatesï¿½ performance in the licensure examination for teachers (LET) among 112 state universities and colleges (SUCs) in the Philippines. Results showed that almost half of the faculty members are bachelorï¿½s degree holders, about two-fifths of them have masterï¿½s degree, and more than one-tenth are doctoral degree holders. The SUCs had an overall passing percentage higher as well as majority of the SUCs performed higher than the national passing rate. There is a significant inverse relationship between the educational attainment of faculty with bachelorï¿½s degree and LET performance. Moreover, it negatively influences the graduatesï¿½ LET performance. In contrast, the educational attainment of faculty with doctoral degree has significant direct relationship to LET performance. In addition, it positively influences the graduatesï¿½ LET performance. However, the educational attainment of teaching staff with masterï¿½s degree does not significantly correlate with LET performance, hence it does not significantly influence LET performance. When the three categories of educational attainment are taken as independent variables, only doctoral degree significantly influences LET performance. Implications of the findings on faculty hiring and training are also discussed to continuously improve LET performance.
Abstract:Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections are a major public health problem worldwide that have been increasing in prevalence in recent years. Antimicrobial combination therapy is the current treatment approach against carbapenem resistance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of colistin (CO) in combination with tigecycline (TGC) and doripenem (DOR) against CRAB isolates in relation to the carbapenem resistance genes. Methods: Thirty CRAB isolates were collected from patients admitted to Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI). Species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed by VITEK 2 system. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of CO was detected by broth microdilution (BMD) and by E-test for TGC and DOR. Interactions of antimicrobial combination of CO, TGC and DOR were detected by E-test fixed ratio method. Carbapenemase producing genes (blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58 and blaNDM), in addition to the intrinsic blaOXA-51 were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: All isolates were sensitive to colistin and susceptibility to TGC was 77%, while all isolates were resistant to DOR by E test. CO/TGC combination revealed synergy and additive effect in 43.3% and 13.3% of the isolates respectively. For CO/DOR combination, synergy rate was 23.3% while additive effect was 16.7%. Carbapenemase producing genes were detected in 24 (80%) of the isolates; blaOXA-23 was the most predominant gene (60%; 18/30) followed by blaNDM gene in 43.3% (13/30). The blaOXA-23 was determined alone in 37% (11/30) and simultaneously with blaNDM gene in 23.3% (7/30), while blaNDM was detected alone in 20% (6/30) of the isolates. The blaOXA-24 and blaOXA-58 genes were not detected. Among the11 isolates positive for only blaOXA-23, the synergistic effect was observed for CO/TGC combination in 64% and in 18% for CO/DOR combination. Synergy was detected in 33% for CO/TGC combination and 17% for CO/DOR combination among isolates harboring blaNDM gene only. In isolates harboring blaOXA23 and blaNDM simultaneously, synergy was detected in 42.9% and 28.7% for CO/DOR and CO/TGC combinations respectively. In conclusion: Limited options in the treatment of CRAB infections have made the combination antibioticis a strategic therapy. The best synergy rate and the highest antibacterial activity were reached with the combination of CO and TGC especially against OXA-23 producing CRAB isolates . NDM-producing isolates are still the more difficult to treat even by the combination therapy.
Abstract:This study aimed to develop and validate a Worktext in Fundamentals of Mathematics for first year teacher education students. This study used the developmental research design. The worktext in Fundamentals of Mathematics was prepared based on the course syllabus and competencies prescribed by the Professional Regulation Commission. The worktext was evaluated by Mathematics experts and was revised incorporating their suggestions. Employing quasi-experimental research, the effectiveness of the worktext was tested among first year students wherein the performance of the students in the experimental group was compared with that of the non-users in the control group. Based on the experts’ and students’ evaluation, the worktext in Fundamentals of Mathematics was very satisfactory in content, appropriateness to the students’ ability, language and style, sequence and organization, and usefulness. Moreover, there was a significant difference between the posttest mean score of the experimental group than the control group. Therefore, the developed worktext was a valid and effective instructional material in improving students’ performance in mathematics.