Abstract:In this artic1e, the prob1em of mu1tiple step–stress acce1erated 1ife tests when the 1ifetime follows\nthe genera1ized exponentia1 distribution is considered. Based on type–I censoring scheme, the maximum\nlikelihood and Bayes methods of estimation were used for estimating the distribution parameters and\nacce1eration factor. A Monte Carlo simu1ation study was carried out to examine the performance of\nobtained estimates
Abstract:Staphylococcal species is an important nosocomial pathogen. The increasing rate of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has led to an enlarged use of antimicrobial drug for instance macrolide, lincosamide, streptogramin B (MLSB) as an alternative approach to treat such infections. The resistance to MLSB can be facilitated by erm genes coding for enzymes that entail inducible (iMLSB) or constitutive (cMLSB) resistance to MLSB antibiotics. Objectives: The aim was to determine the occurrence of inducible clindamycin resistance (iMLSB) among staphylococcal isolates and to detect erm genes in these isolates. Methods: Fifty staphylococcal isolates were collected from patients attending Theodor Bilharz Research Institute. The mecA- mediated oxacillin resistance was identified by disc diffusion. The iMLSB resistance phenotype among staphylococcal isolates was detected by D-test. The ermA, ermB and ermC genes were determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results: S. aureus was identified in 70%, of which 62.9% were MRSA and 37.1% were methicillin susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) was recognized in 30%, of which 86.7% was methicillin resistant CoNS (MR-CoNS) and 13.3% were methicillin susceptible CoNS (MS-CoNS). MRSA, MSSA, MRCoNS and MSCoNS isolates were resistant to erythromycin in 63.6%, 30.8%, 92.3% and 100% respectively. D-test results revealed that iMLSB cMLSB and MSB resistance phenotypes were detected in 28%, 24% and 12% respectively. The iMLSB was determined in 20%, 38.5% and 27.3% of CoNS, MSSA and MRSA isolates respectively. The cMLSB were detected only in MR-CoNS (53.8%) and MRSA (22.7%) isolates. MSB were observed in MRSA, MR-CoNS and MSCoNS in 4.5%, 30.8% and 50% correspondingly. The ermC gene was the most prevalent gene (88%), followed by ermB gene (74%) and were found simultaneously in 68% of the isolates while ermA gene was absent in all isolates. The ermC was the prevalent gene detected among MSSA, MRSA and MS-CoNS isolates in 100%, 90.9% and 100% respectively, while ermB was the predominant gene in MR-CoNS (76.9%). The ermC was the prevalent gene among the iMLSB, cMLSB and MS resistance phenotypes in 85.7%, 100% and 83.3% respectively while ermB was determined in iMLSB, cMLSB and MSB in 64.3%, 75% and 50% respectively. Conclusion: The iMLSB was the most frequent resistance phenotype and ermC was the predominant gene among the staphylococcal isolates. Routine testing for iMLSB resistant strains by D test is critical to recognize the strains which endure vulnerable to clindamycin regardless of macrolide resistance, so as to avoid failure of the treatment.
Abstract:Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) infections are a major public health problem worldwide that have been increasing in prevalence in recent years. Antimicrobial combination therapy is the current treatment approach against carbapenem resistance. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of colistin (CO) in combination with tigecycline (TGC) and doripenem (DOR) against CRAB isolates in relation to the carbapenem resistance genes. Methods: Thirty CRAB isolates were collected from patients admitted to Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI). Species identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed by VITEK 2 system. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of CO was detected by broth microdilution (BMD) and by E-test for TGC and DOR. Interactions of antimicrobial combination of CO, TGC and DOR were detected by E-test fixed ratio method. Carbapenemase producing genes (blaOXA-23, blaOXA-24, blaOXA-58 and blaNDM), in addition to the intrinsic blaOXA-51 were determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results: All isolates were sensitive to colistin and susceptibility to TGC was 77%, while all isolates were resistant to DOR by E test. CO/TGC combination revealed synergy and additive effect in 43.3% and 13.3% of the isolates respectively. For CO/DOR combination, synergy rate was 23.3% while additive effect was 16.7%. Carbapenemase producing genes were detected in 24 (80%) of the isolates; blaOXA-23 was the most predominant gene (60%; 18/30) followed by blaNDM gene in 43.3% (13/30). The blaOXA-23 was determined alone in 37% (11/30) and simultaneously with blaNDM gene in 23.3% (7/30), while blaNDM was detected alone in 20% (6/30) of the isolates. The blaOXA-24 and blaOXA-58 genes were not detected. Among the11 isolates positive for only blaOXA-23, the synergistic effect was observed for CO/TGC combination in 64% and in 18% for CO/DOR combination. Synergy was detected in 33% for CO/TGC combination and 17% for CO/DOR combination among isolates harboring blaNDM gene only. In isolates harboring blaOXA23 and blaNDM simultaneously, synergy was detected in 42.9% and 28.7% for CO/DOR and CO/TGC combinations respectively. In conclusion: Limited options in the treatment of CRAB infections have made the combination antibioticis a strategic therapy. The best synergy rate and the highest antibacterial activity were reached with the combination of CO and TGC especially against OXA-23 producing CRAB isolates . NDM-producing isolates are still the more difficult to treat even by the combination therapy.
Abstract:This study aimed to develop and validate a Worktext in Fundamentals of Mathematics for first year teacher education students. This study used the developmental research design. The worktext in Fundamentals of Mathematics was prepared based on the course syllabus and competencies prescribed by the Professional Regulation Commission. The worktext was evaluated by Mathematics experts and was revised incorporating their suggestions. Employing quasi-experimental research, the effectiveness of the worktext was tested among first year students wherein the performance of the students in the experimental group was compared with that of the non-users in the control group. Based on the experts’ and students’ evaluation, the worktext in Fundamentals of Mathematics was very satisfactory in content, appropriateness to the students’ ability, language and style, sequence and organization, and usefulness. Moreover, there was a significant difference between the posttest mean score of the experimental group than the control group. Therefore, the developed worktext was a valid and effective instructional material in improving students’ performance in mathematics.
Abstract:Team cohesion is helpful to facilitate trust and harmony among the members for better effectiveness and achievement. This article explored the relationship structure of self-concept, emotional intelligence, mental health, positive thinking, and team cohesiveness in the real world. Data were collected from 286 students majoring in sports and analysed to explore its description, correlation, and hierarchical structure among the five variables. The findings revealed that: (1) A sportsmen generally have self-concept, mental health, positive thinking, and emotional intelligence above average scores; (2) There were significant correlations among self-concept, mental health, positive thinking and emotional intelligence; and (3) Team cohesion was built stage by stage as a hierarchy among self-concept, mental health, positive thinking, and emotional intelligence. Group members’ self-concept initially affected mental health then impact positive thinking. Positive thinking, leading to cohesion, was coordinated by emotional intelligence in this mode. Hence, emotional intelligence was approved to be effective to team performance by reconciling the variables of team cohesion. At the end, conclusions and suggestions for the consecutive assays and future research were provided on the bases of research findings.
Abstract:This study investigates the influential paths and internal relationships among the organizational power, organizational culture, and organizational cohesiveness. The Analysis of Moment Structures (AMOS) was utilized to analyze the data from 222 practitioners in cosmetology industry of Taiwan. The findings indicated that (1) both organizational power and organizational culture individually created significant impacts on organizational cohesiveness, and (2) organizational culture plays an important role of mediator between organizational power and cohesiveness. This finding inspires more introspection that more positive organizational culture should be built for organizational cohesiveness which practically contributes to the achievement and performance of both individuals and organizations.
Abstract:The study assessed the analysis of chemically induced rubber production technologies in Cross River State, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the study were to describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, identify sources of information on chemically induced rubber production technologies and ascertain the rate of utilization of chemically induced rubber production technologies the study area. Akamkpa and Odukpani were selected for the study through simple random sampling technique, a sample size of 60 farmers were selected for the study. Data for the study were collected from primary sources through the use of questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics such as frequency counts, percentages, means and standard deviation. The Pearson’s product moment correlation was the-inferential statistical tool used for the study. Findings revealed that 85% of the rubber farmers were males, while 15% of them were females indicating that rubber farm business was dominated by males. Fifty three percent were within the age range of 36 to 45 years, 40% were within the age range of 46 to 55years. 50% were educated to primary level of education, while 38.3% were educated to secondary school level of education. Also, 75% were married and 15% were single while 50% had a farm size of 3 to 4 hectares. Friends/relatives (x = 3.1333), farmers to farmers’ contact (x=2.6000) and radio/television ( x=2.4333) were the major sources of information used by the farmers. The use of RRIN 500 Malaysia (25.1%), Urea fertilizer (16.7%), use of (KCL) potassium chloride fertilizer 21.7% and use of ammonia for preservation (28.3%) were some of the major chemically induced rubber production technologies. The predominant factors militating against the rate of usage of chemically induced rubber production technologies were, lack of adequate information for production (x = 1.8167), unavailability of land (x = 8167) and low price of latexs (x = 1.7000). Age (r = -0.026, P >0.05), household size (r=0.028; P >0.05), education (r = 0.006; P>0.05) and farm size, (r=0.081; P>0.05) were not significant factors militating against utilization of chemically induced rubber production technologies. From the findings, it was recommended that farmers should be encouraged to take to chemically induced rubber production technologies to increase profit.
Abstract:The study identified the Agricultural Biodiversity Conservation Techniques among farmers in Ukwa West Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. It specifically identified the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, assessed the level of awareness of agricultural biodiversity conservations, identified the agricultural biodiversity conservation techniques among farmers and identified constraints associated with agricultural biodiversity conservations. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select respondents for the study. Data were generated through primary and secondary sources. Primary data were generated through the administration of one hundred and twenty (120) copies of questionnaires to the respondents in the study area, while secondary data were collected from journals/publications and other published materials. Data generated were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The findings of the study showed that majority of the respondents (90.83%) were aware of agro-biodiversity conservation, while 9.17% of the respondent had no awareness of conservation. Furthermore, sources of information on agro-biodiversity conservation were through friends/farmers, radio programmes, extension agents, newspapers, indigenous knowledge, magazines and neighbours. The study also showed that farmers in the study area employed several agro-diversity measures among which were; intercropping, cover cropping, zero tillage and organic farming. The study also showed that non-adoption of improved farming practices, lack of interest/involvement of farmers in agricultural biodiversity conservation programmes, lack of agricultural services to farmers, inconsistent government policies on agricultural biodiversity conservation were constraints to agro-biodiversity conservation practices. The study recommended that farmers should be involved in policy preparations on biodiversity, also, grants and incentives should be provided to farmers to improve agro-biodiversity conservation in the study area.
Abstract:Prior to the introduction of modern chemical herbicides, cocoa farmers have responded to weeds using a wide range of indigenous weeds control techniques. The purpose of this study was to assess the utilization of indigenous weed management techniques among cocoa farmers in Akamkpa Local Government Area, Cross River State. Specifically, the study described the socio-economic characteristics of respondents in the study area; identify selected indigenous weed management techniques, identify the problems associated with the utilization of indigenous weed management techniques in the study area. Random sampling procedures were used in the selection of 120 respondents used for the study. Descriptive statistics such as frequency distribution, percentages, mean scores and inferential statistics such as chi-square test respectively were used for data analysis. Results of the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents revealed that a small proportion (41.70%) never had formal education, (58.30%) had less than one hectare of cocoa farmland, majority (81.70%) depended directly on personal savings as the main sources of finances. Majority (73.30%) agreed that lack of time and energy consumption were problems militating against the use of indigenous weed management techniques. The study concluded that majority of the respondents were not educated, had limited access to farmland for cocoa farming, depended directly on personal savings to start up or expand on cocoa farming. The study recommended that human capital development through training on indigenous knowledge system be encouraged in order to reduce risks of chemicals on man and cocoa products.
Abstract:The study described the demographic determinants of utilization of information and communication technologies by final year students of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Calabar. Specifically, the study identified the demographic characteristics of the respondents, assessed the level of utilization of ICT tools in the study area and also, ascertained the problems faced by final year students in the University of Calabar, in the use of ICT(s). 120 respondents were selected through multi-stage sampling techniques. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, means score and rank were used to analyze data used for the study. The results of demographic characteristics of respondents showed that majority were single (85.80%), a good number were resident off – campus of the University. The results of level of utilization of ICT tools by respondents showed that Mobile Phones (X = 2.85), Internet services (X = 2.81), photocopier (X = 2.61) and computer services (X = 2.58), were ranked 1st,2nd, 3rd and 4threspectively. The study also showed that poor electricity supply was one of the major problems confronting ICT usage in the study area. The study concluded that most students used ICT tools such as mobile phones, internet services, photocopiers among very many others. The study therefore recommended that management should intensify efforts towards improving power supply to drive the ICT sector of the university.