This study investigates lead exposure status of workers in steel mills because steel mills reprocess steel by melting steel scrap that contains lead. Personal airborne (PbA, 50 workers) and blood (PbB, 160 workers) sampling were conducted in two steel mills. General characteristics and job histories were collected. PbA and PbB lead concentrations were analyzed by AAS. Correlations and quantitative differences among variables were analyzed by linear regression and ANOVA. The PbA concentration (GM) was 0.010 mg/m³ (max: 0.032 mg/m³, 2% exceed 50% of exposure limit (0.050 mg/m³)). The PbB concentration (GM) was 80.60 µg/l (maximum: 493.29 µg/l, 6% exceed 50% of exposure limit (300 µg/l)). In special, PbA and PbB concentrations were highest in electric arc furnace (EAF) process. 6.7% of PbB in EAF process exceed 100% of exposure limit. PbB concentration tended to increase as career length (R2 = 0.0507, p = 0.004), age (R2 = 0.0377, p = 0.014), and PbA concentration increased (R2 = 0.2690, p = 0.002). These results suggested that steel mills need to provide health management initiatives for workers, such as task-switching to avoid long-term exposure, as well as screening and pre-treatment of steel scraps and improvement of the localized ventilation system for the EAF process.
This paper elaborates the Macedonian case in the process of attaining the principle of diversification of energy resources, the routes and the suppliers. The aim of the paper is to analyze the conditions and challenges of energy security of Republic of Macedonia, as a country dependent on oil import. In terms of energy security, the paper determines the extent of the achieved concept of diversification of energy potentials and energy resources and sets out possible scenarios for future action.\nFinally, the paper presents guidance for the implementation of the concept of energy security in Republic of Macedonia, as well as future guidance for special activities related to the achievement of strategic goals for the gasification of the country and the connection with the nearby existing pipelines. The studies of current strategic measures of Macedonia suggest that the engagement in securing energy independence is not a major strategic goal. This means that the already delayed process of securing energy supplies and the emphasis of political action are focused on increasing the efficiency of available energy resources.
Background: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type I/ II (HTLV-I/II) are the etiologic agents of human disease as adult T-cell leukemia or lymphoma and a chronic and HAM. One of the major routes of HTLV transmission is parenteral transmission and blood cell products. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of HTLV-I/II among high risk patients (β-thalassemia and hemodialysis patients) in Jahrom city.\nMaterials and Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out on 85 β-thalassemia patients and 68 hemodialysis patients among 2012-2013. All samples tested for HTLV (I or II) specific antibody by ELISA method and positive samples were confirmed by Nested-PCR method.\nResult: Of all 153 samples, 7 (4.6%) samples were positive for HTLV (I or II) specific antibody, including 4 of β- thalassemia and 3 of hemodialysis patients. Of 7 positive for HTLV (I or II) specific antibody, no samples was confirmed with Nested-PCR for HTLV-I/II. This study revealed no significant statistical difference in anti HTLV-I/II prevalence between males and females but showed that prevalence of HTLV-I/II infection correlated with increasing age in hemodialysis patients. \nConclusion: The result of this study shows that frequency of HTLV-I/II in these groups in Jahrom is lower than other city of Iran. Further studies with larger samples are recommended to determine the prevalence of these viruses in other community.
More advance, it has studied in some papers that finding of first two moments of sample extremes of order statistics from discrete uniform distribution. In this paper, these moments are generalized. Also, for sample extremes of order statistics from discrete uniform distribution, moment generating functions are obtained.
Uneven internal regional or demographic distribution of inbound tourists\' flows emphasize on studies of regionalization and clustering tools usage in national strategies for the tourist areas’ development, or efficiency and global competitiveness of the tourism industry increasing. This paper contains results of original research of tourist flows concentration, methods of its evaluation in a structure of modernization national (regional) policy of competitiveness of the export of tourism production increasing.\nBased on the analysis of statistical data paper examines the level of tourist flows’ concentration in the countries - global tourism industry leaders and BRICS countries. Moreover paper includes conclusions about interdependence between international tourist traffic concentration and dynamics of national tourism industry competitiveness and recommendations aimed to improve the principles and strategic guidelines of state tourist industry incentives in the countries characterized by different rates of international tourist flows concentration.
Objective. The aim was to analyze the risk factors that could lead diabetes, hypertension, and cancer (CA) among medicine students as well as their attitude knowing the risk of suffering them. \nMethods. One hundred fifty six students of medicine were examined about their nutritional habits, exercise practice, family hereditary history, vital signs and attitudes toward management of those risks. Results. Of 156 students examined (80 men 76 women and 19 y as mean), family history of grandparents frequently referred to diabetes mellitus (DM) with a total of 64 cases, followed by arterial hypertension (AH) with 41 cases and CA with 25 cases. In the parents, the most predominating case was AH and DM in the uncles. \nConclusions. Health medicine students are capable of identifying the risk factors, are acquainted with their consequences and able to implement preventive actions against them. The attitude was avoidance of factors within their reach as poor nutrition, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption even when they neglect other factors like physical activities due to the little free time they have for doing it.
In this study, the focus is on the Richard link functions, which are often used in growth curves. In literature, the vast majority of link functions used are in the form of an S-curve. The reason for this is that by making the possibility of a linear regression model a term, the distribution possibility of a dependent variable can be made with an appropriate shape. With the benefit of this property, the study firstly defines the Richard curve family as a distribution function. Then it is shown how the moment of stopping on the growth curve will be determined from the Richard curves in the growth models. Finally, the study will discuss cyclical Richard distribution.
Production of activated carbons from non-fibrous material of pineapple leaf, used in fiber preparation, were studied. The effects of treatment of materials, that were or were not pre-carbonized, with phosphoric acid during studied. The influences of step procedures, carbonization temperature (500-700 ºC), and activation temperature (500-700 ºC) on the resulting activated carbons properties were evaluated. The raw materials that were not pre-carbonized were directly activated with H3PO4, used in the 1:1 ratio, at 500-700 ºC. Whereas the other set of materials were prepared with a carbonization step at 500 ºC before the activation with the phosphoric acid at 500-700 ºC. The carbonized and activated products were characterized by SEM- EDS, FTIR, XRD, and BET methods. It was found that percent yields of carbonization and activation products have decreased with increasing carbonization and activation temperatures from 500 ºC to 700 ºC. Percent yields of carbon fibers with high content of phosphorus obtained both with and without the pre-carbonization step (17.56-22.60 wt%) are much higher than for non-fibrous carbon materials (1.52-1.66 wt%). The activated carbon fibers exhibit oxygen- and phosphorus-containing groups on their surface. After carbonization, all of the samples show parallel longitudinal groove and streak ridge fibers. The fibers are fairly uneven and rough, and more broken and contacted after activation. The EDS and XRD confirmed that P, Si, K, and Ca elements are present both in non-fibrous materials and activated carbon fibers. It was concluded that the best temperature for activation of non-fibrous materials using both activation processes is 600 ºC.
Robustness of BA scale-free networks, NW small-world networks and router-level\nInternet against hybrid attacks are studied. Models with different topologies and variable\nloads of the corresponding networks were founded firstly. Experiments of hybrid attacks\nincluding random attacks and target attacks were simulated. Results showed clearly that\nscale-free networks and Internet were robust to random failures and quite fragile to target\nattacks. For the NW small-world networks, attacks types are not so much sensitive to target\nattacks on the networks. As for random attacks, all three networks have relative robustness\nwhen workloads are low. All three networks become fragile when workloads are getting\nhigher.
The topic of relations is of great importance in solving the many\nproblems in our lives in all areas of human life develops diverse problems\nand mixed up things, and the problems have become unclear in the sense that\nthe problems in our lives are a vague, so it was for scientific research in that opinion, and create new concepts to solve contemporary problems, some\nscientists have presented many research papers on the fuzzy relations and their applications. The concept of fuzzy set a prominent role with the\ntopological structure for flexible, accurate models for solving contemporary problems in this paper we are trying to put things and uncertain problems in mathematical model make things perfectly clear, vague issues to make it easier for us to decide without any confusion and we will study the different and in some types of the composition relationships. Finally, we show some applications to the outcome of the new relations in the study of plant diseases
Social capital has emerged as a fundamental concept in organization and management literature. Social capital plays vital role in organization success in achieving its predefined goals. Thus, organizations should identify the factors affecting improvement of social capital and align them with organizational goals via appropriate planning and decision making. In the present study, factors affecting social capital in higher education institutes of Khuzestan province are identified and prioritized using multiple criteria decision making techniques. \nSocial capital has not been much studied in previous investigations. The results of the present study emphasize the importance of social capital for organization in general; and particularly highlight the importance of social capital indices in academic societies. At macro level, it was revealed that management duty and the main goal of managers in every organization is to make better use of various resources and facilities such as human resource, capital, material, energy and information. There was apparent agreement between experts of Shushtar and Dezful universities regarding relative importance of communication indices. Experts of all the three universities believe that common identity determining has the lowest priority. These experts consider “trust” as a determinant and important factor. Final priority of the indices showed that organizational proportion had the highest priority. Thus, it can be concluded that for better exploitation of social capital in every university, structural proportion should be considered at first.
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between career indecision and parenting styles, emotional intelligence and career decision making self-efficacy in female high school adolescents. In this study, the mediator role of career decision making self-efficacy and emotional intelligence in relationship with parenting styles and career indecision were investigated. A total of 398 Iranian participants completed a battery of scales including Career indecision scale, Career decision making self-efficacy scale and Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. Parenting styles scale was completed by participant\'s mother. Results revealed that mother\'s authoritative styles had a relationship with career indecision through emotional intelligence. Also, mother\'s permissive style was related with career indecision through self-efficacy. Emotional intelligence had a direct and indirect relation with indecision through self-efficacy. The results showed that emotional intelligence and career decision making self-efficacy had mediator role in relationship of mother\'s parenting styles with career indecision.
Objective: To investigate the relation between Thyroid dysfunction and autoimmunity in pregnant women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM).\nStudy Design: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study. In this study, 70 pregnant women in the third trimester of pregnancy with GDM (case group) and 70 healthy pregnant women in the same way (control group) were enrolled. Thyroid function tests (including serum TSH, fT4 level) and anti-TPO auto antibodies were measured in all women. Family history of the diabetes mellitus, GDM and thyroid disease was determined in both groups. Information of all patients was entered in checklists and then analyzed by statistical methods in SPSS.19. \nResults: The mean age of patients in case group was 29.98±6.23 and in control group was 28.38 ±6.15. In cases 27.1 % have family history of type 2 diabetes, 2% have history of thyroiditis disorder and 7.1% have history of gestational diabetes. The mean of BMI in cases with 30.52 was more than controls with 29.58. Obtained data showed that TSH level (p=0.033) and Anti- TPO (p=0.001) in cases were more than controls and FT4 (p=0.001) level was lower. \nConclusion: The results showed that thyroid disorders in pregnancy women with gestational diabetes were significantly more than control group. So, doing necessary thyroid function tests as routinely was recommended.
Many researchers worldwide, studied the ordinary topology in many subfields of\ncomputer science such as artificial intelligence and data mining. Some of them generate\ntopologies using equivalence relation and studied their generalizations in rough set theory.\nOthers obtained the topological spaces using any binary relation (reflexive, pre-order, transitive,\n..etc.) and then they define the rough approximations from the point view of topology. In this\npaper, we will put almost papers results that studied topology and rough sets in one concluded\nthe paper. Also, we will focus on the valuation conclusions which can more benefit in real life\napplications. This paper is the beginning of a new way for researchers can start to solve many of\nthe problems yet to be solved in this area.
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem and among Saudi subjects. However, vitamin D deficiency has been recognized to be involved in various immune functions, bone and muscle development. In addition, vitamin D deficiency has been shown to be associated with some autoimmune diseases. Only few reports have analyzed the supposed association between autoimmune thyroid diseases and vitamin D concentration with inconclusive results. Objective: This study was to examine the relationship, if any, between thyroid autoimmunity and Serum 25(OH) vitamin D levels in Saudi patients. Subjects and Methods: One hundred subjects were included in this study, which was carried out at outpatient endocrinology clinic of King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Patients samples forwarded to immunology laboratory for thyroid antibodies, antithyroid peroxidase (TPO) and antithyroglobulin antibodies (Tg), analysis was selected and categorized as with high or normal levels of these antibodies and assayed for serum levels of 25(OH) vitamin D. Fifty five patients were found to have AITDs (evidenced by autoimmune features or elevated antithyroid peroxidase or antithyroglobulin antibodies) and forty five patients showed no evidence of autoimmunity (non-AITDs). Also, one hundred healthy subjects, age and sex-matched, volunteers living in the Jeddah area were randomly selected, as control group and anthropometric parameters, socioeconomic status were obtained after granted their consents. Results: Regards the serum 25(OH)vitamin D status, it was found to be more in the group (A) than in the group (B) (p = 0.024). In addition, the serum calcium, T3 and T4 level were found to be more in the group (A) than in the group (B) with statistical significant difference between both groups (p = 0.022, 0.023 and 0.019). While the serum TSH was found to be more in the group (B) than in the group (A) with statistical significant difference between both groups (p = 0.019). In addition, there were significant differences between AITD and non-AITD patients regarding serum 25(OH) vitamin D and abnormal thyroid function test. However, Pearson’s correlation coefficients test for the relationship between serum 25 (OH) vitamin D and each of serum antithyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and antithyroglobulin (TgAb) antibodies levels in both groups showed a strong inverse relationship. Conclusion: There is a strong inverse relationship between serum 25 (OH) vitamin D and each of serum antithyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and antithyroglobulin (TgAb) antibodies levels.
Heuristic classifiers are a new family of classifiers that use function optimization algorithms to find the decision hyperplanes between the different classes. This type of classifiers shows good potentially to solve different problems. One of the limitations of these classifiers is that they are not able to classify uncertain data. So in this paper we propose a heuristic classifier to classify uncertain data. In this way particle swarm classifier which is one of the best classifier of this family is chosen. Also Trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are used to represent uncertain data. The experimental results show that our proposed classifier is able to classify fuzzy data set as other common uncertain data classifiers. In addition comparison of proposed classifier and traditional particle swarm classifier show that our classifier is able to classify crisp data sets similar to traditional one. Also we introduce the dependency concept in classification of fuzzy data sets. This concept can help to promote decision making in different domains.